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Found 68 results

  1. ANYONE PLS EXPLAIN THIS .... :-( MY dear friends my question is as simple as "until we are self sufficient...how can we think of helping other countries??? i mean ab india ke villages main road toh bane nahi then why we are making roads in afghanistan..doesnot it is wasting of indian tax payers money??? pls explain
  2. Countries of Unicameral Parliament 1.Albania--Kuvendi 2.Bangladesh--Jatiyo Sangshad 3.Bulgaria--National Assembly 4.Burkina Faso--National Assembly 5.Croatia--Sabor 6.Denmark--Folketing 7.Dominica--House of Assembly 8.Estonia--Riigikogu 9.Finland--Eduskunta 10.Greece--Hellenic Parliament 11.Hungary--National Assembly 12.Iceland--Althing 13.Israel--Knesset 14.Kurdistan Region--Kurdistan National Assembly 15.Latvia--Saeima 16.Lithuania--Seimas 17.Malta--House of Representatives 18.Moldova--Parliament 19.Mongolia--State Great Khural 20.Montenegro--Parliament 21.New Zealand--Parliament 22.Norway*--Storting 23.Palestinian Authority--Parliament 24.Papua New Guinea--National Parliament 25.Portugal--Assembly of the Republic 26.Saint Kitts and Nevis--National Assembly 27.Saint Vincent and the Grenadines--House of Assembly 28.Samoa--Fono 29.Serbia--National Assembly 30.Singapore--Parliament 31.Slovakia--National Council 32.Sweden--Riksdag 33.Turkey--Grand National Assembly 34.Ukraine--Verhovna Rada 35.Vanuatu--Parliament Countries of Bicameral Parliament 1.Australia-Parliament--Senate--House of Representatives 2.Austria-Parliament--Federal Council--National Council 3.Antigua and Barbuda-Parliament--Senate--House of Representatives 4.The Bahamas-Parliament--Senate--House of Assembly 5.Barbados-Parliament--Senate--House of Assmebly 6.Belize--National Assembly--Senate--House of Representatives 7.Belgium-Federal Parliament--Senate--Chamber of Representatives 8.Bhutan-Parliament (Chitshog)--Bhutan will become a Democratic Constitutional Monarchy in 2008--National Council (Gyalyong Tshogde)-- National Assembly (Gyalyong Tshogdu) 9.Canada-Parliament--Senate--House of Commons 10.Czech Republic-Parliament--Senate--Chamber of Deputies 11.Ethiopia-Federal Parliamentary Assembly--House of Federation-- House of People's Representatives 12.Germany--Bundesrat (Federal Council)--Bundestag (Federal Diet) 13.Grenada-Parliament--Senate--House of Representatives 14.India-Parliament--Rajya Sabha (Council of States)--Lok Sabha (House of People) 15.Ireland-Oireachtas--Seanad Éireann--Dáil Éireann 16.Iraq-National Assembly--Council of Union [2]--Council of Representatives 17.Italy-Parliament--Senate of the Republic--Chamber of Deputies 18.Jamaica-Parliament--Senate--House of Representatives 19.Japan-Diet--House of Councillors--House of Representatives 20.Malaysia-Parliament--Dewan Negara--Dewan Rakyat 21.The Netherlands-States-General--Eerste Kamer--Tweede Kamer 22.Pakistan-Majlis-e-Shoora--Senate--National Assembly 23.Poland-Parliament--Senate--Sejm 24.Romania-Parliament--Senate--Chamber of Deputies 25.Saint Lucia-Parliament--Senate--House of Assembly 26.Slovenia-Parliament--National Council--National Assembly 27.South Africa-Parliament--National Council of Provinces--National Assembly 28.Spain-Cortes Generales--Senate--Congress of Deputies 29.Switzerland-Federal Assembly--Council of States--National Council 30.Thailand-National Assembly [3]--Senate--House of Representatives 31.Trinidad and Tobago-Parliament--Senate--House of Representatives 32.United Kingdom-Parliament--House of Lords--House of Common
  3. Riyal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://hemoneyconverter.com/INR/SAR.aspx Convert Saudi Riyal to Rupees | SAR to INR Currency Converter http://www.prokerala.com/news/finance/curr...from=OMR&to=INR http://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/conver...From=INR&To=QAR Saudi riyal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Convert Iran Rial to Rupees | IRR to INR Currency Converter What could be the reasons for the Riyal currency rate fluctuation in Middle East Countries ?. 1 Omani Riyal = Rs 140. 1 Saudi Riyal = Rs 14.48. 1 Qatari Riyal = Rs 14.9. 1 Iran Rial = Rs 1.2008. What are the Factors contributing to this fluctuations ?. Thanks & Regards, Prashant S Akerkar
  4. ​UNESCO membership for Palestine Until now, Palestine enjoyed only observer status at the U.N. agency for education, science and culture. The demand for full membership was made by the Palestinian Authority and won the approval of 107 member states with 14 votes against and 52 abstentions at the organisation's General Conference. A 185 of UNESCO's 194 member states were eligible to vote. Political Implications Full membership of UNESCO is a small but significant step forward for the Palestinians in their attempts to gain international recognition and statehood. The vote took place with the backdrop of increased Israeli-Palestinian violence. The U.S. and Israel are scheduled to withdraw their funding for UNESCO, which will result in a budget shortfall of 22 per cent. U.S. law prohibits Washington from funding any U.N.-affiliated body that accepts Palestinian membership. UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova warned the U.S. against “disengagement” from the organisation, arguing that it supported “core U.S. interests” in a number of key countries, including Afghanistan and Iraq.
  5. So more than one topper suggested that keep a note of all the MOUs and agreements the GOI signs with other countries ..... And i started on this task ... except nothing makes sense ....... every single mou talks randomly about development and cooperation and partnerships and exchanges and policy dialogue and ties and linkages ..... it is like the paragraphs are written specifically to boggle the mind of the poor harassed ias student ....... the first reading always makes my eyes glaze over ... can't they list in point form what they want to do in the future ...... they just keep going 'gol-mol' .... and i swear 90% of the mou sound exactly the same with the same vague terms and lofty goals
  6. Can anyone throw some light on why US Congress discusses a lot about other countries? In the recent days they introduced resolutions on Balochistan, SL & India...Is it fair for them to interfere in internal relations of other countries? If so, what is the rationale behind it?
  7. Hi , A couple of basic questions : 1) India's gains if it were to become a permanent UNSC member ( on all fronts) 2) What is the procedure/powers of sanction imposition ( eg by US on Iran ) ,which countries can do it and to what extent they can go ? What about approval of other countries etc ... I have some idea but if you guys throw some more points it would be great .Thanks!
  8. dear members i came across this term called PTA while reading d difference btn ceca,cepa and fta.anyone pls clear my doubt. lopa:)
  9. Hi All, A few days ago, there was a furore by Hindutva activists over hoisting of a Pakistani flag in front of Tahsildar office in a town in Karnataka. Keeping all the related people/plots and Indian Sentiments aside, all I wanted to know is: What wud be the consequences if some other country's flag was hoisted in tht Tahsildar's office? Is it constitutionally invalid or illegal to hoist a foreign countries national flag in Indian Govts office, in place of Indian flag? How big a crime is it? Is it considered an insult to the Indian flag? Where can I find the rules defining this?
  10. 1. Comparative Public Administration as a field of research is not so much comparative, as it is the study of public administration in foreign countries. Comment. [93/I/5a/20] does this question refer to the post WW II comparative study when it was focused on studying the administrative system of developing countries? 2. The emphasis in most of the writings on comparative bureaucracy appears to be on the interaction between the administrative subsystem and the political system in which it exists. Comment. [94/I/5d/20] 3. The prismatic-sala model "enables us to cope with many problems of transitional societies...." (Riggs). What are these problems and how can this model enables us to cope with them? [89/I/3/60] As far as my knowledge goes, Riggs only defined the problem but failed short of giving any model to mitigate the characteristics of prismatic society and its administrative system. I can't find a convincing answer to the second part of the question. Please help.
  11. Hi Frnds , This is jai ..........i am preparing for CSE-2011.........with geography as 1st and Pub. Admin. as 2nd optional........can anyone give me some tips or suggestion regarding map practice that how to do it and what should concern during practice. Thanks for your valuable efforts. Regards Jai
  12. [Mains 2009] Following essay were asked 1. are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? 2. are we a 'soft ' state? 3. The foucs of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the 'haves' in our society 4. Good fences make good neighbours 5. Globalism vs Nationalism My question is what did you write? and what was your experience (for those who gave mains 2009) what would you write? (for those who didn't give) I would like to know what did you or would you write in other 4 essays? Now I start with myself are we a 'soft ' state? I attempted are we a 'soft ' state? (because i didnot have enough content to write more than 2 pages for any other given essay.) i talked about two dimensions India's external softness = 1. unable to get a permanent solution regarding paki's Kashmir and terrorism - 26/11 2. unable to deal with China on Aksai-chin area + Mac-mohan line dispute and Tibet. (and the historical things that happened) conclusion -external india's external softness has 2 advantages so its not that bad to be a soft state- 1.Our growth and rise is not taken as hostiles work by West (like they see China) 2. thanks to that soft nature, we can get clearance from NSG to purchase uranium , with out signining NPT + CTBT. Besides, many things are beyond india's control so it can't take hard stand even if it wants to like 1. China's military /economic strength+ UNSC seat 2. Pakis getting American help because of their Afghanistan interest. India's internal softness 1.unable to deal with North East India's secessionists, insurgents+ Maoists in red corridor 2.anyone with numerical strength can block the roads , burn the buses and railways - with out fear of punishment. 3. unable to maintain rule of law, corruption, etc. ++ the reason for it like no inter- central /state(s) coordination on any issue but blamegames all the time. (lack of political maturity) every issue taken in caste/religion context and illiterate people can be manipulated (lack of citizens' maturity) +and some other routine stuff on corruption. conclusion -internal 1.unlike external softness, india doesn't gain anything from internal softness- except saving a few buses from being burned (had we gone hard) 2.unlike external softness its not that things are beyond our control but only because of the faulty federal structure, lack of meaningful political leadership and citizen awareness - things have messed up. My experience just like India's law and order i also messed up writing the essay because 1. initially i left spaces to draw diagrams and cycles but then i ran out of time so couldn't draw them. 2. i ran out of time so i couldn't write the internal softness part in much detail. 3. i forgot to mention the kandhar & Rubiya hostage situation (which rang my mind after reading the Indian Express and Bengal's home Secretary's remark on yes we are a soft state.)
  13. Hey guys, as our sub forum is witnessing 0 progress, i wish to start a discussion, which is an important aspect in India's Foreign policy. Is Govt right in passing the Nuclear Liability Bill in its current form.? Is Govt right for voting in favor of Iran Sanctions.?
  14. Hello friends, It is very much true that geography one of the most popular optional in upsc both in prelims as well as in mains.This can be directly infer from the selection list of each and every year.One major advantage and limitations of geography avilability of plenty of material from various coaching institutes ,text books and guidesin the market. often they have been misguiding students those who are not having any strategy or planning. There fore one must take care of these guidelines---- [h1]Four Important Aspects[/h1] One importent aspect in civils service is , person must know what to read and what not to read.This looks very simple but most of the people do mistake at this,and often do mistakes. second aspect in what way the material are to be studied and how to balnce both optional and gs. how to prepare notes and and how much time is reqired to allote for revisions above all, the most importent thing is how to write the exam;Because i belive most of the people are failed to clear pre even after well preparation. one must give importence to these aspects in his preparation.for that wt is reqired to do? [h1]What is required?[/h1] one must have complete grip on syllabus;i.e the topics which were given in syllabus of upsc preliminary.I suggest atlast read once syllabus every day and try to digest each and every sub heading. one must look into old question papers inorder to undestand the nature of questions and to know the pulse of upsc for what exactly they are demanding form student for priliminary. The above two looks very simple and many of people might thought as a folish solution;But these are the tools that direct the students for what to read and wt not to read and how much to emphasise on a particular topic. one advantage with geography is it requires both analitical study and factual study (route memorization);There fore this optional eqully easy/difficult for arts and science background people. one advantage with geography is nearly 20-25 bits in gs are from geography one needs net correct 60-65bits out of 120 in optional and 60-65out of 150 bits in gs for clearing preliminary;The range may have variation from year to year but very less likely to be more than 65 bits.There fore in the arena negitive marking one must give importence to accuracy. accuracy can come only with revision for atlast 5-6 times and reading with analysis and reasoning. one carefully go through old question papers , can find 50-60questions tests the very core basics of the subject, 20-30 questions are based on reasoning and analysis(slight difficulty),20-30 bits are with moderate difficulty and there are 15-20 with extreme difficulty. if one want to clear prelims with geography he must take care of first two sections; once person is able to do any question of this kind he can raise the bar for next level prepartion,provided if gs also equally good. [h1]How to get 65 marks in geography?[/h1] [h2]Booklist[/h2] i)read and understand with analysis the standard text books like NCERT class VI,VII,VIII-Land and People(old books) Class IX,X India physical and Environment Class XI&XII(principles of Physical Geography,Human Geography Of world and India),&Practicles of Geography of XII Both old Version and New version Ncerts(2007) of all the books above. Certificate of Physical and Human Geography-Goching Leong Physical Geography, Social and Economic Geography-Rupa made simple. ii)Geographical Thought by Masjid Hussain iii)Cartography by R.L.Singh iv)indian geography-Khullar v)Atlas of orient Long man,TTK [h2]How to Read the books?[/h2] while reading these books one must take care of syllabus and nature of questions. One must follow the map while reading these text books. Because made develops ur anlytical ability. use Penguin dictonary where ever ur not comfortble with terminology of geography. I think u may or may n't get the subject in ur first reading; but don't stop reading. I suggest u go through atleast twise these books so that u will comme to know various links assosiated between topics.There is no need for u to read each and every text book from 1st page to last page.I suggest u strictly bound to syllabus. In ur 3Ed and 4Th reading one must prepare notes from these books.By this time u will come to know pulse of upsc. I strongly belive one who follows sincearly these things at a time of 4-5Hrs per day for geography, i think for all the 4 revisions including notes preparation may take 85-100 days. Even if he starts dec 1st by feb end he can complete the syllabus with well understanding. [h2]in April[/h2] Very imporetent thing in march to april 15th one must try to solve as many number of bits as possible.Dont worry of mistakes or some bits may have wrong answers but keep on doing bits atleat 250-300 per day from geography. during mid april revise the prepared notes atleast 3 times till 3 days before the exam and practice bits as many as possible. In General [h1] Topic wise Marks Breakup[/h1] a)Physical Geography--36-42 bits i)geomorphology------14-17 ii)climatology----------10-12 iii)oceanography-------7-9 iv)bio and envt geo----5-7 b)physical geography of india--24-26 c)Human Geography------------17-19 d)Regional geography-----------18-20 e)Cartography-------------------7-10 f)Geographical thought----------10-14 This is the general pattern bits distribution to syllabus, however ther could be slght variation from year to year. I strongly belive one who follow sincerely with consistency above guidelines there is 99% certinity to 65+ net bits in geography. [h1] Further Reference books[/h1] In addition u can also reference to physical geography---savinder singh human Geography----masjid hussian I suggest u on thing, dont bother what oters are doing and reading ,have a faith and belive that u will do 65+ in the exam correctly. [h1]In the Exam Hall[/h1] Writing Exam is an art,one must take care of many things in writing exam Be confident and have a faith on ur preration;don't think about the aspirants around u dont worry about the paper;belive if it is difficult to u,it is difficult to every body do what u know dont go for guess work in ur first round of answering must complete the entire parer in 65-70minutes and do atlest 55-60 questions with >98% accuracy. In the second round try to do bits where it demand analysis and reasoning(15-18bits in 30-35 min) in ur 3ed round(final) attempt 12-15 in 25 min where u can eliminate 2 choices in net one must be in range of 88-92 with a accuracy of atleat 80% [h1]Personal Experience[/h1] 2008 I gave my pt, with the same strategy I attempted 79 bits in geography and 92 in gs and my net score was about 72 in geo and 88 in gs 2009 my net score was 71 out of 74 and 87 out of 90. But to reach such a acuracy I belive on revison and practice of bits. With the best wishes to all the aspirants of 2010 [h1]Tips for Map Questions in Mains[/h1] http://www.indianofficer.com/forums/geography/8018-guideline-geography-map-pointing-questions-mains.html
  15. The poem below is a masterpiece - it beautifully captures foundational principles that any nation should adopt - or a concise description of what the constitution of any country should look like. It was written by Nobel prize winner Rabindranath Tagore, before India's independence. A must-read for any senator, politician, public servant, or any dutiful citizen. Where the mind is without fear And the head is held high Where knowledge is free Where the world has not been broken up Into fragments by narrow domestic walls Where words come out from the depth of truth Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit Where the mind is led forward by thee Into ever-widening thought and action Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake Summary: The poem describes Tagore's vision of how his country could offer a heavenly experience to it's citizens, or what a free country should look like. In his view, it would be a country where, people can express their views freely without fear of repercussions, people share and spread knowledge freely, people are open minded and willing to listen to each other's perspectives, people are true to each other, value their integrity, and honest in their dealings, people work hard and strive for perfection in quality, people are driven by reasoning and scientific temper, instead of fallacies, hypocricies, or ideologies. people are open to change and don't succumb to inertia or continue age-old orthodox customs and practices that do not meaningfully apply anymore, people are progressive, think of bigger goals and accomplish them, constantly raising the bar. When such a vision is accomplished, such a country would be free, and a heaven to live in. Easily said, than done? Not quite, there are countries that have woken up to much of Tagore's vision. Ironically, India hasn't woken up yet, but not in deep slumber either - let's hope the dawn is soon.
  16. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide[1] which started to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for the human being, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering, without any discrimination based onnationality, race, sex, religious beliefs, class or political opinions. The often-heard term International Red Cross is actually a misnomer, as no official organization as such exists bearing that name. In reality, the movement consists of several distinct organizations that are legally independent from each other, but are united within the Movement through common basic principles, objectives, symbols, statutes and governing organs. The Movement's parts: The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a private humanitarian institution founded in 1863 in Geneva, Switzerland by Henry Dunant. Its 25-member committee has a unique authority under international humanitarian law to protect the life and dignity of the victims of international and internal armed conflicts. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on three occasions (in 1917, 1944 and 1963). The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was founded in 1919 and today it coordinates activities between the 186 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies within the Movement. On an international level, the Federation leads and organizes, in close cooperation with the National Societies, relief assistance missions responding to large-scale emergencies. The International Federation Secretariat is based in Geneva, Switzerland. In 1963, the Federation (then known as the League of Red Cross Societies) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with the ICRC. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies exist in nearly every country in the world. Currently 186 National Societies are recognized by the ICRC and admitted as full members of the Federation. Each entity works in its home country according to the principles of international humanitarian law and the statutes of the international Movement. Depending on their specific circumstances and capacities, National Societies can take on additional humanitarian tasks that are not directly defined by international humanitarian law or the mandates of the international Movement. In many countries, they are tightly linked to the respective national health care system by providing emergency medical services.
  17. Following are landlocked countries which share boundaries Central Asia landlocked countries (6): Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan Central European and Balkan landlocked countries (8): Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Slovakia and Switzerland Central African landlocked countries (5): Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Mali, Niger South African landlocked countries (4): Botswana, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe East African landlocked countries (3): Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda Caucasian landlocked countries (2): Armenia, Azerbaijan South American landlocked countries (2): Bolivia, Paraguay
  18. The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIA) with Nandan Nilekani at its head is set to provide a unique number to all Indian citizens by 2011, at a cost estimated at Rs 150,000 crores, with an initial budgeted outlay of Rs 100 crores for the current year. Obtaining the UI Number is said to be not mandatory. Thus people who would want the UI Number but to whom there is little access because of living in remote areas, and people who are absent from their home when the enumerator visits would not be blamed. But such people and also genuine citizens who exercise their right not to obtain a UI Number will inevitably be confused with people who do not want to be identified either because they are illegal immigrants from neighbouring countries or because they have nefarious or anti-national aims. Such inevitable confusion would make genuine citizens without UI Numbers targets for police or other checks, with consequent loss of rights. At the same time, making the UI Number mandatory may bring up constitutional issues because of the State assuming the restrictive role of the “Big Brother” that limits or restricts individual freedoms. Therefore the concept of UI Number is one that perhaps calls for urgent legal discussion.
  19. Major Rivers of NORTH AMERICA (source:worldatlas.com) Hundreds of rivers and their tributaries slice across North America. Here is a brief description of the major ones: BRAZOS This Texas river begins in the northern part of the state in Stonewall County, and flows southeast into Brazoria County and the Gulf of Mexico. It's (840 miles) (1,351 km) in length. CHURCHILL This river of central Canada rises in northwestern Saskatchewan, then flows east into Manitoba, and on into Hudson Bay. It passes through numerous lakes and is known for the rapids along its path. It's (1,000 miles) (1,609 km) in length. COLORADO Beginning in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado, it moves southwest, ending in the Gulf of California. It's (1,450 miles) (2,333 km) in length and over the centuries formed numerous canyons along its winding path. The most famous of these is the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona. The river has more than 30 electric power plants along its run, as well as dozens of dams and reservoirs. COLUMBIA This wide, fast-flowing river begins in the Canadian Rockies of southeast British Columbia, Canada, flowing south through the State of Washington, then forming the natural border between Washington and Oregon. It ends in the Pacific Ocean and is (1,152 miles) (1,857 km) in length. Hydroelectric power development in the river basin brought inexpensive electricity to the Pacific Northwest, but it severely affected salmon spawning and local fish migration. FRASER This river of British Columbia, Canada, begins in the Canadian Rockies near Yellowhead Pass, then flows in a variety of directions (generally south), finally turning west to empty into the Strait of Georgia, just south of Vancouver. It's (850 miles) (1,368 km) in length. MACKENZIE It's the longest river in Canada and dissects the Northwest Territories. It flows generally northwest into Mackenzie Bay and the Beaufort Sea. This historic river was discovered by Sir Alexander MacKenzie, and along its path are thick, green forests and dozens of major lakes. It's (1,200 miles) (1,800 km) in length. If then combined with its tributaries - the Slave, Peace and Finlay rivers - it extends to (2,635 miles) (4,240 km), and becomes the second longest river in North America, second only to the Mississippi/Missouri river system combination at (3,877 miles) (6,236 km) in length. MISSISSIPPI It is the major river of North America and the United States at (2,339 miles) (3,765 km) in length. It flows from northwestern Minnesota south to the Gulf of Mexico, just below the city of New Orleans. It is a significant transportation artery and when combined with its major tributaries (the Missouri and Ohio rivers) it becomes the third largest river system in the world at (3,877 miles) (6,236 km) in length. MISSOURI It begins in southern Montana in the Rocky Mountains, first flowing north then generally southeast across the heart of the United States, ending at the Mississippi River, just to the north of St. Louis, Missouri. It is the longest river in the United States (2,500 miles) (4,023 km). OHIO Formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the Ohio flows generally southwest. It forms the natural borders of Ohio and West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky, as well as parts of the borders of Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky. It empties into the Mississippi River at the Illinois border and is (975 miles) (1,569 km) long. RIO GRANDE It is one of the longest rivers in North America at (1,885 miles) (3,034 km). It begins in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado, then flows south through New Mexico. It forms the natural border between Texas and the country of Mexico as it flows southeast to the Gulf of Mexico. In Mexico it is known as Rio Bravo del Norte. Used for drinking water by both countries, the river is becoming more polluted as population centers that dot the river grow in size, and then dump sewage and pesticides into the water. ST. LAWRENCE This river flows northeast out of Lake Ontario and on into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It's (760 miles) (1,225 km) in length and permits the passage of deep-water ships between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes. It includes a series of man-made canals, locks and dams, and is considered one of the most vital shipping routes on the planet. For additional details on the river and the Great Lakes. YUKON It begins in the southwestern edge of the Yukon Territory of Canada, and then flows northwest across the border into Alaska. This massive river continues southwest across central Alaska, ending at the Bering Sea. Even at a length of (1,265 miles) (2.035 km), most of it is navigable, however, it remains frozen from October through mid-June.
  20. Though we can't see much from our government, it is very good to see this kind of move from Super Star and celebrity . Can we say that this can be a lesson for king khan to learn that country comes first, not the fans from the neighboring countries and businesses in Dubai?
  21. Africa - List of Countries Old Names and new names New Names Old Names Benin - Dahomey Bostwana - Bechunanaland Burkina Faso - Upper Volta, Burkina Burkina Faso, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau - Sahel (region) Burundi - Urundi Central African Republic - Central African Empire Central African Republic - Ubang Shari Democratic Republic of the Congo - Belgian Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo - Katanga Democratic Republic of the Congo - Zaire Djibouti - Afars & Issas territory (French Somalia) Egypt, Syria - United Arab Republic Equatorial Guinea - Spanish Guinea Eritrea, Eithopia, Somalia - Italian East Africa Ethiopia - Abyssinia Ghana - Gold Coast Ghana - Togoland Guinea - French Guinea Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda - British East Africa Kingdom of Lesotho - Basutoland Liberia - Grain coast Madagascar - Malagasy Republic Malawi - Nyasaland Mali - French Sudan Mali - Sudanese Republic Mali, Mauritania - Songhay (Songhai) Mali, Mauritiana, Niger Senegal Mozambique - Portugese East Africa Namibia - German South West Africa Niger, Nigeria - Hausaland Nigeria - Biafra Reunion Island - Bourbon Island Rwanada - Ruanda Senegal & Mali - Mali Federation Somalaia - Benadir South Africa - Bophuthatswana South Africa - British Bechunanaland South Africa - Cape Colny South Africa - Ciskei South Africa - Kaffraria South Africa - Stellaland South Africa - Transkei South Africa - Transvaal or Zuid Afrikannsche Republiek Sudan, Egypt - Nubia Tanzania - Tanganyika Territory Tanzania - Zanzibar The Gambia, Senegal - Senegambia (region) Western Sahara - Rio de Oro Western Sahara - Sahara Occidental Zambia - Northern Rhodesia Zimbabwe - Southern Rhodesia
  22. Hello Friends, I am curious to know how long do the Indian Foreign Service officers serve outside India. What happens of their families during that time if they are moved to different countries? What about children's education? Thanks
  23. Punatsangchhu-1 Hydro Project on 28th july 2007 , Bhutan & India signed a landmark agreement on the implementation of the Punatsangchhu-1 Hydro Electric Project. the agreement was signed at Gyelyong Tshokhang, Thimphu by Mr.Pranab Mukerjiee, external affairs minister , on behalf of government of India & Lyonpo Khandu Wangchuk, Foreign minister on behalf of the Royal government of Bhutan. - the Punatsangchhu-1 project is a run-of-the-river scheme on the Punatsangchhu river located between 8.5 km & 18.5 downstream of Wangdue Phodrang Bridge. the project wil be funded by the government of India with 40% grant & 60% loan an interest of 10%. the estimated capital cost of the project as per the DPR is Nu.38,148.10 million as per dec 2006 price level. - the project envisages installed capacity of the 1095 MW (6x182.50 MW) with annual average energy generation of 5377.45 GWH.the project will have 137 mts high concrete gravity dam, 4 intakes, 4 underground desilting chambers, 7.50 km long headrace tunnel & 2 verticle pressure shafts & an underground powehouse. a new provision that would enable both the governments to benefit from Carbon Emission Revenue has also been introduced. - the construction of project is expected to commence in 2008 & completed by 2014. pre-construction activities of the project have already been started. - a MoU for the preparaiton of the detalied project report of Punatsangchhu-1 was signed on September 15th 2003. - under this agreement , both the countries have set out to achieve, inter alia, the export of a minimum of 5000 MW of hydropower from Bhutan to India from 2020. - 3 hydroelectric power projecthave already been commissioned in Bhutan with Indian assistance, they are: a) Chukha = 336 MW Kurichhu = 60 MW c) Tala = 1020 MW. surplus power generated from the hydropower projects is exported to India. - Punatsangchhu-1 the largest hydro power project between India & Bhutan. - it has already generated 1395 million units, exceeding the generation forecast of 1328 units & earning gross revenue of Nu.2012 billion ($52 million). - the project is estimated to generate 4.8 units per year.
  24. [h1] List of countries that border only one other country via land boundaries[/h1] [h2]Peninsulae[/h2] Qatar - with Saudi Arabia, Denmark - with Germany, (connected to Sweden via the Oresund Bridge, ) South Korea-with North Korea(38th parallel separates the two) [h2]Partly surrounded, with sea access[/h2] The Gambia - by Senegal Monaco - by France, Portugal - with Spain South Korea - with North Korea, [h2]Landlocked and completely surrounded (enclaves)[/h2] Lesotho - by South Africa, San Marino - by Italy, Vatican City - by Italy, [h2]Sharing an island[/h2] Brunei borders only Malaysian Borneo, Dominican Republic and Haiti border only each other, on the island of Hispaniola East Timor borders only Indonesia, on the island of Timor The Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom (specifically, Northern Ireland) border only each other, on the island of Ireland (the island of Great Britain is connected to France via the Channel Tunnel) Papua New Guinea borders only Indonesia, on the island of New Guinea [h2]Sharing a continent[/h2] Canada shares a land border only with the United States. It has sea boundaries with Denmark (between Baffin Island and Greenland) and France (between the island of Newfoundland and the territory of St. Pierre and Miquelon), but its only land boundaries are in the south with the contiguous United States and in the northwest with Alaska. [h2]Buffer zones[/h2] South Korea shares a border with North Korea at the Demarcation Line, but they are separated by a 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone. (Both Korean governments consider themselves the rightful rulers of the entire Korean peninsula.) [h3]Other borders[/h3] [h2]Causeways, bridges, and tunnels[/h2] Borders relevant to this list may arguably include short theoretical borders in the middle of man-made constructions. A bridge does not constitute a land border; however the status of tunnels as “true†land borders is disputed, as these exist on land, but not on the surface Also artificial islands or causeways cound be disputed. Denmark, in addition to its border with Germany, technically also has an extremely short border with Sweden across the Oresund Bridge Singapore, although an island nation with no natural land borders, is connected to Malaysia by the Johor Causeway and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link Bahrain, likewise an island nation, is connected to Saudi Arabia by the King Fahd Causeway; the Qatar–Bahrain Friendship Bridge connecting it to Qatar is planned but as yet incomplete The United Kingdom, in addition to its border with the Republic of Ireland, has a border with France in the Channel Tunnel [h2]Dependent territories[/h2] In some cases, a dependent territory of one nation borders another nation. Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British sovereign base area, borders the Republic of Cyprus. Dhekelia borders also the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, but the latter is recognised only by Turkey. Åland Islands, a Finnish autonomous region, borders Sweden on the skerry of Märket. Gibraltar, a British territory, occupies a small peninsula and has a short land border with Spain. The island of Saint Martin is split between two island territories: the northern half, Saint-Martin, is a French overseas collectivity; the southern half, Sint Maarten, is part of the Netherlands Antilles.
  25. FOEHN WIND this occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range. as the wind moves upslope, it expands & cools, causing water vapour to precipitate out. this dehydrate air then passes over the crest & begins to move downslope. Foehn winds can rise temperature by as much as 30 degree C , 54 degree F in just a matter of hours. EFFECTS : winds of this type are called "snow-eaters" for their ability to make snow melt rapidly. this ability is based not only on high temperature, but also the low relative humidity of the air mass. Foehn winds are often associated in popular mythology with illness ranging from migraines to psychosis. the name Foehn came from German, originated in the alpine region. Foehn winds are called in different names in different countries. they are : - Zonda winds in Argentina - Chinook in USA & Canada - the Nor'Westr in Hawkes Bay - Halny in Carpathian Mountain, Eastern Europe - Fogony in the Catalan Pyrenees - Berg wind in South Africa - Viento Sur in the Cantabrian region of North Spain - Terral in Malaga Souhtern Spain - Foehn wind in Austria, southern germany.