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Found 75 results

  1. Hindu editorial Hi I have tried writing concise of hindu editorial please read it and give ur feedback in comments so that i can improve my newspaper reading abilities 14th Dec, Hindu editorial This editorial deals with India-China trade imbalance. The key points are: * China is the largest importer of India’s iron ore * Every month 9 million tonnes of iron ore is shipped from India to China * China ships to India various manufactured goods ranging from locks to power equipments * Today China is helping India in infrastructure development, telecom expansion and power sector development * This has resulted in a record bilateral trade(expected to cross 60 billion $), making china the largest trade partner. But the trade deficit that india has with China is unsustainable * Trade deficit has quadrupled in the last 5 years from 4 to 16 billion $ * Deficit with China makes up 20% of India’s deficit * India’s strengths lie in IT, engineering products and Pharmaceuticals sector * But they haven’t been able to penentrate into Chinese markets because of china’s artificial trade barriers * TCS is the only IT company which has won a contract for a chinese company * Also our labour laws and comparatively higher wages make indian goods uncompetetive in china’s markets * The widening trade deficit has been source of tension in the bilateral relations * Last year, maximum anti-dumping investigations against China was filed by India * Indian industrialists are calling for import duties on chinese goods as cheap Chinese goods are crippling domestic industry * However things are changing for the good now * With labour shortages, demographic changes and increasing labour wages, china’s export competetiveness is on the decline * India also needs to make amends in its house. Some of them are * Rationalise labour laws * Improve infrastructure * Provide right subsidies to specific sectors CHINA’s SOLUTION for TRADE IMBALANCE * Expand tourism * Allow China into Indian manufacturing sector * Improve financial cooperation between the two * Establish a free trade area
  2. Hey guys this is kind of a funny question but plz do tolerate it and clear my doubt... I was watching a movie in which china was waging a bio war against india...our constitution though it gives right to freedom of speech and expression,its not an absolute right... our govt can impose reasonable restrictions on certain grounds which includes that our bond with a foreign or neighboring countries must not be damaged....as this film projects something about wrong about a foreign country.....isn't this a breach of this act????????
  3. Narendra modi went to china for gujarat and Chinese came to Bihar to build relations.Can we say the state Chief ministers are just bother abt their states development and not India?What abt other states?If they dont meet the chinese they may loose out to these states.
  4. Iraq can not bear to sweep her glass of spirits, "Okay." Shashi played piano and flute, dance is Pina, the Mouzhong, ears, are all to enjoy. That sounds melodious sound of the piano, finger lightly pressed and the intensity can not be taken lightly, as the. If he had not molested her, then he must be a gentleman it is her eyes. Looking Yushang dance, speak, cheap authentic nfl jerseys than the day the pond better, more hardness and softness of change and charming, with less of many lingering sadness, dancing heart, Yushang state of mind must be the best. Music stops, dance complete, applause. Micro-a meditation that is read, the total assessment to go there, "my sister's dance well, just drop a little essence of things." "Essence? Mean?" Yushang pull the pull, long sleeves, Iraq still waiting for the glass below. "Stuck to add some of the original eco-wear things, such as sand rapids, such as ranges, into an abyss, the flow will lead to a dynamic dance and more realistic, less empty and dry." Leaning on the small tables talking about, the dance, she has always had a deep understanding. "Iran says nice glass, glass to dance if you let Iraq that rap how step?" Iraq the central glass on a firm in the room, suddenly the power of the body placed on the wrist, toss long-sleeved, back foot Scattered acute withdrawal, that cloud sleeve fluctuated, undulating wave-like flying in the room, feeling the breath of that jet has appeared in every person's eyes, vivid. So a few moves down, Iraq has been tired a glass of sweat. "Sister, well, like with these." Yushang busy Tibetan side of that grape, "the Iraqi glass, come taste, sweet yet." Gently pick up the one entrance, really sweet, and seedless, is the fruit of the fine. "Really delicious." Eat a fresh, up and ready to leave. "Miss Iraq glass, my aunt's birthday I ask you jump together with Yushang this period of 'Qingluan Suits Dance' it?" Aunt, that he is a cross-cousin and brother Wu Prefecture, nfl throwback jerseys ah, no wonder so without fear of tyranny. "No, Iraq is not good glass of the body, fear not afford to task. Sister to dance like." Thought that the military prefect, anxious to do away from the farther the better, how to take the initiative to send home. "Hiding in the deep of this aromatic compound between the Square is really a pity that the Iraqi people a glass." He said loudly, as if sincere praise. "Xie Zhonggong son praise the Iraqi glass to step down." Irreverent tone, Xie has changed the tone, how sincere. Wait Yushang to retain, Iraq has been out of the outdoor glass. Incense breath running to pick up people against lazy couch, gently told the Xuela, "after Yushang to please, are turned down it, said I was sick, but no." "Yes, miss." "Xuela, please go to the kitchen where the cook to cook cup Chuanbei stuffed pear and put some rock sugar to sweet and kind. cheap coach handbags" Such a long time without food sweets, and suddenly want to eat, eat in it, she is never wronged their own. If the body is not uncomfortable, she had to get their hands up. Iraq is also a glass of cooking can not be underestimated. While eating the stuffed pears in a small cup, listening to birds chirping window, earlier annoyance gradually dispersed. "Miss, morrow we go fly a kite on a plum, really?" A long time did not go to Meishan, and this ghost girl is going to join in the excitement of a landscape it. "Good. Morrow early start, and then carry my flute with like." Not about free will, just free line, a good kite to fly among the clouds miss that feeling, that in the hands of silk flying if that is her dream and freedom ... ... Rain said: that one end of a long silk thread is the message of hope is the sun, it is the yearning for comfortable flying in the sky. Meng Meng day, yet a large bright, Xuela came Mengen the. Rush into the sky, free of York York hair, youth nfl jerseys still dressed in white, out of the room, gently enjoyable door, a quiet, incense is still between the Square of the girls sleeping being. Yawned, two yao Tiao street TANSEI appeared in the road. The old rules, straight eaten breakfast Fung Hong shop, gossip and Wu aunt lives on, long time no such a good mood and comfortable. To Meishan Road, is the Official Road, eighteen-foot wide road, few pedestrians, horses and occasionally through, it is the the difference between the Official Road. Meishan Road from Fengcheng But Qi Bali, beautiful mountains, beautiful. Shanqing is Manshan fields are green and groaning, only to tree top, Yangmei connected into a tired, you can sit under a tree shade, Meishan origin is because it has contiguous Yangmei. Shuixiu is from the top to the foot of a long stream of water flowing from the top of the Longquan hole out, along with the steep hill, nfl jerseys from chinaforming a dozen small waterfalls, hot springs sprinkled on the face Ju Yipeng on the wet cool. Take an hour, and finally to the foot of the mountain there is a teahouse, the former is not opened so early, at the moment the door was wide open, for a long time coming, this tea with the way business has changed. In front of a desk, a person is sitting, his back to her, far overlooking the TV drama Meishan, some familiar silhouette, like ... ...
  5. this is the article that i found on toi website, which is about the piracy issue in high sea, this may be useful in GS as well as in interview, i hope it would be helpful to all of you. Easy money, low conviction risk help pirates Which are the earliest reported incidents of piracy? Piracy in the high seas is as old as the maritime trade. The first celebrity victim of piracy was Julius Caesar, who was released only after the Romans paid the demanded ransom to his Cilician captors. The miscalculation of kidnapping Caesar resulted in the demise of the pirates who had remained a terror in the eastern Mediterranean Sea for two centuries. After his release, Caesar returned to take his revenge and crucified each of them. In medieval times, Europe was terrorized again by Scandinavian invaders. Unlike the pirates who attacked ships, the Vikings operated by invading coasts and inland cities. In Asia, the Malaya Archipelago was strategically located to facilitate trade between Indian, Chinese, Arab and Malayan merchants. The political crisis in the kingdom of Sri Vijaya resulted in the increase in piracy incidents. These conditions prompted Rajendra Chola I to carry out his historical raids in which he conquered parts of present day Cambodia, Maldives and Sri Lanka, establishing trading posts and setting the sea routes free from the pirates. Which period is considered the golden age of piracy? In the early days of colonial era, the establishment of fixed trade routes made maritime trade vulnerable. The immense growth of sea trade and the brutal competition between colonial powers provided the ideal platform for the pirates to operate. After the discovery of America, the Caribbean Sea became a centre of European trade. Many Spanish refugees fled to the Caribbean islands after the war of Spanish Succession. As most of Latin America was under Spanish control these people were persecuted and became pirates. , the Spanish. Between the colonial powers, it became common to authorize private warships to attack and rob enemy vessels. These government-authorized pirates were called privateers. All this contributed in considerable increase in piracy and the golden age of piracy spans from the 1650s to the 1730s. Which are the worst affected areas today? Apart from the strait of Malacca, Gulf of Aden and the Somalia Sea, the international maritime bureau identifies Bangladesh sea waters, the Santos sea area of Brazil and Callao in Peru as piracy-prone areas. Kandla in India and Manila in the Philippines are infamous for pirates who attack anchored ships. Most piracy however takes place in the high seas, which are not included in the territorial sea or internal waters of any country. On the high seas, every nation has the power to seize a pirate ship or release a ship seized by pirates. These pirates are tried by the court of the country which carries out the seizure. However, it is mandatory that the seizure is carried out by warships or military aircrafts in government service. In case the pirates flee to the territorial water of their mother country, no action can be taken as foreign naval ships are not allowed to enter the territorial water of the pirate's mother country as this is considered an infringement of sovereignty. What gave rise to piracy in Somalia? There are various reasons. Since the early 1990s, the country doesn't have any effective central government. Its location on the horn of Africa, proximity to international trading routes, low national income and high gains from piracy attract many youth to join pirate gangs. Reports of dumping of nuclear wastes and illegal fishing in Somalian waters have also angered local people. The fishermen were the first to be hit by illegal fishing and they turned to piracy. The high rewards then attracted warlords and local goons. Most merchant ships are owned by MNCs. A ship owned by an American company might be registered in Panama, have crew from Hong Kong, India and China. So which country has to take action remains confusing. If such a hijacked ship is intercepted by a country not directly involved, the arrested pirates are often released. Naturally the risk of getting sentenced is low.
  6. please free to modify this thread in whichever way it suits best Some important points i feel we should do this time for paper1 1) Financial Inclusion:Swabhimaan 2) NPS: Swalambhan ( also mention of NPS: Lite) 3) Monetary Policy of RBI (May 2011) with significant changes pertaining to Repo Rate,Reverse Repo, MSF & Priority Sector Lending to NBFC 4) Inflation: whole last year focus in curbing inflation , so we can expect few questions. 5) Nagoya Protocol 6) India to host CBD and South Africa Sustainable Development in 2012( Background info on this) 7)Asian Clearing Union 8)Islamic Banking 9) Renewable Energy ( No Idea on what kind of questions but definite focus on world on this world now) 10) Constitutional Amendments 11) SAARC (Completed 25 years in 2010) 12) BRICS ( Inclusion of SA, Difference with IBSA which traces it orgin to NAM) Please feel free to add
  7. Has we see china is mostly concern with major military operation , secret space craft developments , spy's .so will china become a cause of world war.
  8. SUMATRA VOLCANIC GROUPS Names = Volcanic Shapes = Meters = Feet weh = stratavolcano = 617 = 2024 senlawah agam = stratavolcano = 1810 = 5938 penet sague = complex volcano = 2801 = 9190 geureudong = stratavolcano = 2885 = 9465 kember = shield volcano = 2245 = 7365 sibayak = stratavolcano = 2212 = 7257 sinabung = stratavolcano = 2460 = 8071 toba = supervolcano = 2157 = 7077 helatoba-taruntung = fumarole field = 1100 = 3609 imun = unknown = 1505 = 4938 sibualbuali = stratavolcano = 1819 = 5968 lubukraya = stratavolcano = 1862 = 6109 sorikmarapi = stratavolcano = 2145 = 7037 talakman = complex volcano = 2919 = 9577 sarik-gajah = volcanic cone = nil = nil marapi = complex volcano = 2891 = 9455 tandikat = stratavolcano = 2438 = 7999 talang = stratavolcano = 2597 = 8520 kerinci = stratavolcano = 3800 = 12,467 hutapanjang = stratavolcano = 2021 = 6631 sumbing = stratavolcano = 2507 = 8225 kunyit = stratavolcano = 2151 = 7057 belirang-beriti = compound = 1958 = 6424 bukit duen = stratavolcano = 2467 = 8094 kaba = stratavolcano = 1952 = 6404 dempo = stratavolcano = 3173 = 10,410 patah = unknown = 2817 = 9242 bukit lumut balai = stratavolcano = 2055 = 6742 besar = stratavolcano = 1899 = 6230 ranare = caldera = 1881 = 6174 sekincan belirang = caldera = 1719 = 5640 suoh = caldera = 1000 = 3281 hulubolu = caldera = 1040 = 3412 rajabasa = stratavolcano = 1281 = 4202
  9. Tropic of Cancer: Mexico - 1 Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Libya , Egypt, - 6 (Touching the border of Niger & Chad) India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, Taiwan - 6 Total - 13 Tropic of Capricorn: Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil - 4 Namibia, Botswana, S Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar - 5 Australia - 1 TOTAL- 10 Equator: Ecuacdar, Colombia, Brazil - 3 Gabon, Congo, Re.Dem. Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia - 6 Indonesia - 1 TOTAL : 10 Tropic of Cancer - India: Gujarat, Rajasthan, MP, Chattisgarh, Jarkhand, WB, Tripura, Mizoram - TOTAL 8 :)(pl reply if any correction) :)
  10. Hi, I was reading on the Greece Sovereign Debt & Euro crisis. Read that 'Greece being stuck with Euro has no option of depreciating its currency which leads to fast recovery'. That's why will it go back to 'drachma' ? Also similar strategy was followed by some Asian countries during Asian financial crisis etc. Can some one share more light on how this is related? Also relation with inc. in exports with depreciation? Thanks.
  11. 14 '8-THOUSANDERS' ABOVE SEA LEVEL the 14 eight thousanders ; 8000 meters higher above sea level are all in himalayas : Name = Meters = Place Everest = 8848 = nepal-tibet K2 = 8611 = pakistan-china kangchenjunga = 8586 = nepal-sikkim lhotse = 8511 = nepal-tibet makalu = 8463 = nepal-tibet cho oyu = 8201 = nepal-tibet dhaulagiri = 8167 = nepal manaslu = 8163 = nepal nanga parbat = 8125 = pakistan annapurna = 8091 = nepal gasherbrum I = 8068 = pakistan-china broad peak = 8047 = pakistan-china gasherbrum II = 8035 = pakistan-china shishapangma = 8012 = tibet
  12. Dear All, i had come across this article in ET , i have few qestion whihc i marked in BLUE which i have unable to understand or i have less information about it . Thanks & Regards, Vishal DRAGONS $2.4-TRILLION WEAPON BEIJING IS LIKELY TO USE ITS FOREX RESERVES TO MAKE WORLD TRADE SERVE ITS INTEREST CHINA disclosed the other day that its foreign exchange reserves had increased to about $2.4 trillion in 2009, a gain of $453 billion for the year:). These stupendous figures and the likelihood that the countrys reserves will rise by a comparable amount this year have now become a financial, economic and geopolitical reality of surpassing significance. :mad:The significance is not, as many imagine, that China might suddenly dump the dollar and dethrone it as the worlds major international currency, undermining American economic power and prestige. Two-thirds or more of Chinas reserves are estimated to be held in dollars. As an economic strategy, dumping the dollar would boomerang . It would amount to a declaration of economic war in which everyone Chinese, Americans and many others would lose. Consider what would happen, hypothetically., China would first sell securities in which its dollars are invested. This would include an estimated $800 billion in US Treasury bonds and securities, plus billions of American stocks and corporate bonds. After unloading the securities and collecting dollars, it would sell the dollars on foreign exchange markets for other currencies: the euro, the yen and who knows what else. The massive disgorging of dollars could trigger another global economic collapse. As Chinas selling became known, other foreign and American investors might jump on to the bandwagon, abandoning dollar securities and shifting currencies. If panic ensued, markets would fall sharply. Banks and investors would see their capital and wealth erode. The resumption of the global recession, even depression , would shrink foreign markets for Chinas exports in 2009, its exports fell 16%. To protect jobs, other countries might impose quotas or tariffs on Chinese imports. Why would China do this to itself The answer: it wouldnt . Look elsewhere for the significance of the huge foreign exchange reserves. For starters, they confirm Chinas mercantilist trade policies. A country that practices mercantilism strives to increase exports at the expense of its trading partners. China has done this by keeping its currency, the renminbi, at an artificially-low rate that gives its exports a competitive advantage on world markets.( is it Advisible? If YES, Why can't India Do this? Postive and Negative of this strategy.) Huge trade surpluses have resulted, although last years surplus declined as a result of the global slump. Its often said that the US borrows from China, because the Chinese hold so many Treasury bonds. This inaccurately describes reality. When China receives dollars, it could use those dollars to buy imports. Or it could limit the dollar inflow by allowing the renminbi to appreciate, making its exports more expensive and its imports cheaper. In 2005, China began a modest appreciation of the renminbi against the dollar; in mid-2008 , it stopped. Since then, the renminbi has depreciated against many currencies, reports economist Nicholas Lardy of the Peterson Institute. In 2010, Lardy expects the trade surplus to grow. So, China accumulates dollars, which must be invested. The large surpluses cause China to lend to us and other countries, regardless of whether we want the loans . Even if China had no trade surplus, its foreign exchange reserves would probably grow because it receives earnings on its existing reserves. These reserves serve other Chinese strategic purposes . Theyre used to make investments in raw materials oil, food and minerals and important technologies around the world; or they buy political influence with foreign aid or favourable loans. In effect, China has a $2.4-trillion stash to use as it pleases. The irony: despite complaints about big Treasury holdings, these holdings advance Chinas economic aims of job creation through exports and protection against scarcities of vital commodities. The underlying purpose is to bolster the governments grip on power by ensuring rapid economic growth. Granted, China is tying to generate more growth from domestic spending; still, it is promoting strong exports until that happens. But whats good for China may not be good for the rest of the world, including the US. Its not simply a redirection of economic power but a question of how that power will be used, consciously or unconsciously, to shape the global economic order. Lopsided economic expansion poses many dangers. Already, Chinas huge reserves invested in US bonds are cited as one reason for the low interest rates that brought on the financial crisis. The artificially-depressed renminbi hurts exports from developing countries and not just the US, Europe and Japan. (why they not taking any action ? if yes .. which one ?) China grows at others expense. The manipulation of trade subverts support elsewhere for open trading policies. For now, China has no desire to substitute the renminbi for the dollar as the primary global currency . Its ambition is more sweeping: to create a world economy that serves Chinas interests and, only as an afterthought, anyone elses ( what WTO is doing ?) Source . Economic times .26 Jan 2010
  13. today on google news i saw this term, referring Shiv Shankar Menon as third generation civil servant. Can anyone explore what exactly this generation means. TIA
  14. TERRESTRIAL & MARINE FORESTS OF WORLD 1. Terrestrial Forests : - southwestern ghats moist forests ( india) - eastern deccan plateau moist forests (india) - naga-manipuri-chin hill moist forests (india) - chhota-nagpur dry forests (india) - himalayan subtropical pine forests (bhutan, india, nepal, pakistan) - northeast india-myanmar pine forests (india, myanmar) - eastern himalaya broadleaf & conifer forests (bhutan,india, china, myanmar, nepal) - western himalaya temperate forests (afghanistan, india, nepal, pakistan) - terai-duar savannas & grasslands (bhutan, india, nepal) - rann of kutch flooded grassland ( india, pakistan) - tibetan plateau steppe forests ( afghanistan, india, pakistan, tajikistan) - eastern himalaya alpine meadows (bhutan, india, myanmar, nepal) - sundarbans mangrooves (bangaldesh , india) 2. Marine forests : - indus river delta (india, pakistan) - andaman sea tropical coral ( andaman & nicobar islands india), indonesia, malaysia, myanmar, thailand) - maldives, cahgos, lakshadweep atolls tropical coral (chagos archipelago(UK), lakshadweep(india), maldives, srilanka)
  15. DIFFERENT TROPICAL & SUBTROPICAL FORESTS OF WORLD 1. Tropical & Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests : - central deccan plateau dry deciduous forests (india) - chota-nagpur by deciduous forests (india) - east-deccan dry evergreen forests (india) - kathiwar-gir dry deciduous forests (india) - narmada valley dry deciduous forests (india) - northern dry deciduous forests (india) - south deccan plateau dry deciduous forests (india) 2. Tropical & Subtropical Coniferous Forests : - himalayas subtropical pine forests (bhutan, india, nepal, pakistan) - northeast india-myanmar pine forests ( india, myanmar) 3. Tempeature Broadleaf & Mixed Forests : - eastern himalayas boradleaf forests (bhutan, india, nepal) - western himalayan broadleaf forests (india, nepal, pakistan) 4. Temperate coniferous forests : - eastern himalayan subtropical apline coniferous forests (bhutan, india, nepal) - western himalayan subtropical apline coniferous forests (india, nepal, pakistan) 5. Tropical & Subtropical Grassland ,Savanna, Shrublands: - terai-duar savanna & grassland (bhutan, india, nepal) 6. Moutain Grassland & Shrubland: - east himalaya apline shrub & meadous (bhutna, china, india, myanmar, nepal) - karakoram-west tibetan plateau apline forests ( afghanistan, china, india, pakistan) - north western himalaya alpine shrub & meadows (china, india, pakistan) - western himalaya alpine shrub & meadows (india, nepal) 7. Flooded Grassland & savanna : - rann of kutch seasonal salt marsh (idnia, pakistan) 8. Desert & Xeric Shrublands : - deccan thorn scrub forests (india) - indus valley desert ( india, pakistan) - northwestern thron scrub forests (india, pakistan) - thar desert (india, pakistan) 9. Mangrooves : - godawari-krishna mangroove (india) - indus river delta-arabian sea mangroove (pakistan) - maynmar coast mangroove (india, malaysia, myanmar, thailand) - sunderbuns mangroove (bangladesh, india)
  16. Slowly and Steadily all our border differences will be wiped out, if we maintain unity in diversity at International level, I have just added a two page today's indian express news.
  17. Hi All, I have been reading thru my mails in the office when I came across this mail which says "Google is Cheating Indians by manipulating India Map in GoogleChina".I haven't believed n the mail until I saw for myself that Google is actually doing that. The State of Arunachal Pradesh an integral part of the country has been portrayed as part of China in Chinese version of Indian Map in Google China. I also have taken screenshots of the same and attached them for your reference. By means of this Google has been trying to act indifferent to Indians and the sentiments of the country. I have already notified them ,however am unsure as to what the result is going to be. All I want is your help in making this a serious issue so as to not to let any one play with the sentiments of the country and its people. So If anyone can help reach someone who can take this up. I have already written a mail to the letters division of The Hindu newspaper. I am also taking up this issue in international forums and discussions groups so as to bring out the highest impact it could create. I am unsure how inappropriate this is to this website, But I believe everybody in here are after the same cause "SERVING THE COUNTRY AND ITS SENTIMENTS". SO FRIENDS HELP SOLVE THIS THING
  18. Also known as agrofuel, these fuels are mainly derived from biomass or bio waste. These fuels can be used for any purposes, but the main use for which they have to be brought is in the transportation sector. Most of the vehicles require fuels which provide high power and are dense so that storage is easier. These engines require fuels that are clean and are in the liquid form. The most important advantage of using liquid as fuel is that they can be easily pumped and can also be handled easily. This is the main reason why almost all the vehicles use liquid form of fuels for combustion purpose. For other forms of non transportation applications there are other alternative solid biomass fuel like wood. These non transportation applications can bring into use these solid biomass fuels as they can easily bear the low power density of external combustion. Wood has been brought into use since a very long period and is one of the major contributors of global warming. Biofuels are the best way of reducing the emission of the greenhouse gases. They can also be looked upon as a way of energy security which stands as an alternative of fossil fuels that are limited in availability. Today, the use of biofuels has expanded throughout the globe. Some of the major producers and users of biogases are Asia, Europe and America. Theoretically, biofuel can be easily produced through any carbon source; making the photosynthetic plants the most commonly used material for production. Almost all types of materials derived from the plants are used for manufacturing biogas. One of the greatest problems that is being faced by the researchers in the field is how to covert the biomass energy into the liquid fuel. There are two methods currently brought into use to solve the above problem. In the first one, sugar crops or starch are grown and through the process of fermentation, ethanol is produced. In the second method, plants are grown that naturally produce oil like jatropha and algae. These oils are heated to reduce their viscosity after which they are directly used as fuel for diesel engines. This oil can be further treated to produce biodiesel which can be used for various purposes. Most of the biofuels are derived from biomass or bio waste. Biomass can be termed as material which is derived from recently living organism. Most of the biomass is obtained from plants and animals and also include their by products. The most important feature of biomass is that they are renewable sources of energy unlike other natural resources like coal, petroleum and even nuclear fuel. Some of the agricultural products that are specially grown for the production of biofuels are switchgrass, soybeans and corn in United States. Brazil produces sugar cane, Europe produces sugar beet and wheat while, China produces cassava and sorghum, south-east Asia produces miscanthus and palm oil while India produces jatropha.
  19. As Mr. Obama is pressing all the non-NPT's and NPT's to sign CTBT through UN Resoulation, it is fair to make the world free and Safe from nueclear and I think India should also join this agreement by signatory to CTBT. India should not worry about its neighbours(enemies) because they will be also made compulsory signatory to CTBT, its a logical thinking that our enemies follow us and their will also be pressure from countries who are signatories to NPT and CTBT from side. I want you all to share your views and comments. thank you
  20. Although Asia consists for several countries including India and China where civilization first developed, this continent was a late-starter as far as modern tourism is concerned. The industrial revolution got delayed primarily because most of the countries were directly or indirectly under colonial rule. It was only after World War II that modern tourism started evolving in this region. It was much different from the developments in Europe because inspiration, direction and guidance for its development came from the government and not from the people. Realizing the significance of tourism, some Asian governments offered a variety of loans and incentives for the quicker development of tourism infrastructure. The regional governments in countries like India also organized and subsidized training programmes to meet the manpower needs of this industry. The National Tourist Organization (NTO) was set up to develop and market the various tourist products. They even went beyond their national borders to open promotional offices in the key tourist markets of the world. Today, all major countries and even small states in Asia have national tourism promotion organizations often charged with the development of infrastructure for tourism at home and marketing of their tourism products in overseas destinations. In Kerala backwaters emerged as a major selling proposition due to the ingenuity shown by the tourism promoters and the sincerity of the private players. India was one of the pioneers in the field of tourism in Asia. A national tourism organization was established on a small scale as early as in 1949, and the first foreign tourist office became operational by 1951 in New York, followed by another one in London. Other countries like Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Indonesia, Pakistan and Nepal started promoting tourism only in the late fifties. China joined this club in 1978. In West Asia, national tourist organizations do exist in one form or the other. However, with the exception of Israel and Jordon, others are not much involved in serious tourism promotion activities. In South Asia, Iran was active before the revolution but it has since changed its concept and approach towards tourism.
  21. MAJOR FISHING ZONES OF THE WORLD 1. NORTH-WEST PACIFIC : this zone extends from the Bering sea in the north to the East China sea in the south. Countries involved are: korea, philippines, china , japan. Favourable factors : - convergence of cold Oyashio & warm Kuroshio currents. - indented coasts, Japan is the leading nation. Important catches : cod, herring, tuna, salmon. 2. NORTH-WEST ATLANTIC : this zone covers the coasts of Newfoundland, Novascotia & U.S.A. the zone extends from Newfoundland in the north to Long island in the south. Favourable factors : - wide continential shelf - the presence of number of banks (zones of shallow water). Fishing grounds / regions : the grand banks (southeast of newfoundland) , the sable bank (near novascotia) , george's bank near new england state. Important catches : cod, herring, mackeral, halibut, haddock, flounders. Chesapeake Bay is famous for Oysters' catches. Fishing ports : halifax , St.john, boston, new york. 3. NORTH-EAST PACIFIC : this zone extends from Alaska to California long the western coast of north america. Important catches : salmon, herring, mackeral, sardines & tuna. Fishing grounds : deep water off the british colombia , alaskan coasts in halibut. Important Fishing countries : canada, u.s.a . Important fishing ports : anchorage, vancouver, san fancisco. 4. NORTH-EAST ATLANTIC : this zone extends from Artic circle to Mediterranean sea. Favourable grounds : north sea with dogger bank. the warm current, north pacific drift keeps the region free from ice. Important Fishing grounds : the north-est atlantic zone with shallow sea condition, & supply of plankton. Important catches : cod, herring, haddock, mackeral. Nations : norway, sweden, denmark, netherlands, france, u.k. , iceland. the fiord coasts of norway provide the best fishing sites. norway is called the 'land of fisherman'. 5. THE COASTS OF PERU & CHILE : this area is having natural upwelling i.e. the cold bottom water rises to take the place of surface water moving away from the coast. this brings to more planktons ont the surface & hence more fish. the major type of fish available here is small fish called as 'anchovy'. Problems of Fishing : 1. over-fishing of a few particular species : Halibut & Salmon are today endangered species. the nets used for fishing have small gaps that small & immature fish are also caught. 2. ocean transport : north atlantic ocean route is very busy route & passes through the north-east & north-west atlantic fishing regions. the ships cause water-pollution & pose serious threat to fishing boats, nets .
  22. In Himalayas Mt. Range - Karakoram Countries - Pakistan, China, India Regions - Gilgit, ladakh,baltistan Ht. Peak - K2 Other info - Borders on Himalayas, Pamir Mts, Hinduraj Mt. Range- Kunlun Countries -China Ht. Peak - Kunlun Godess (Keriya) Mt. Range -Hindukush Countries - Afghanistan, Pakistan Ht. Peak - Tirich Mir Other info - Part of himalayas, it is the westernmost extn., of pamir mts, the karakoram range and is a sub-range of himalayas (N.Pak) ;Geographic center of population of world Mt. Range Tien Shan Countries - China,Pak,India,Kazakhstan, Krygyzstan Regions - Xinjiang, J&K,Northern areas of Pak Ht. Peak - Jengish Choksu Other info - Heaven's mountains Mt. Range - Elbruz Countries - Iran Regions -Extending along the southern shore of caspian sea Ht. Peak - Mt.Damavand Mt. Range - Altai Countries Russia, Kazakhstan,China Mongolia Mt. Range -Taurus Countries -Turkey Mt. Range - Sulaiman Countries -Pakistan Ht. Peak - Takht-e-sulaiman Ural Mountains Countries -Russia, kazakhstan Ht. Peak - Mt.Narodnaya Other info -Natural boundary between Europe & Asia
  23. Gender Gap in India In the latest gender gap index report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF) India keeps company with the worst in the world. Among the 128 countries that have been evaluated by the WEF India ranked 114 followed among others by Yemen,Chad,Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. Even China,Philippines,Sri Lanka and Botswana fare much better than us. The survey considers the proportion of resources and opportunities made available to women on educational,economic,political and health parities. It is only in the realm of political empowerment India has done somewhat ok ranking 21st.That is also thanks to a long spell of prime minister ship by Mrs. Indira Gandhi. It raises question as why women are at receiving end if they are politically empowered. India is still largely a feudal and patriarchal society. In many parts of our country especially in UP,Bihar,Rajasthan,Haryana and Punjab women are often treated as if they were a piece of property. In these parts the sex-ratio is most skewed because families often snuff out the lives of girl children before or immediately after they are born. In many parts of India women are viewed as an economic liability despite contributing in several ways to our society and economy. India's policies and projects for women are woefully inadequate. For instance the literacy rate for females is merely 48% against 73% for males. Public health is another area of failure. Hundreds of women in rural India die every year during child birth for want of medical attention. There are thousands more who do not even have access to a primary health centre. Importantly reforming property laws more vigorously so that gender parity becomes a reality must rank among the government's priorities. While these changes are necessary they will amount to nothing if we as a society continue to deny our women the dignity, liberty and opportunities that are rightfully theirs. No society will ever prosper as a whole as long as half of it is constantly treated as somehow less than the other half. Source : Azad India Foundation
  24. Hi All, We all know that India has been included in NSG, but before it happened, China showed signs of reluctance on the same. I would like to know the reasons of China's reluctantance from - strategic, economical and security point of view for both India and China. Thanks, -Bhaskar