74th Amendment Act of 1992 :
This act has added Part IX-A to the constitution of India.It is entitled as ' The Municipalities ' & consists of provisions from Articles 243-P to 243-ZG. Addition Act has also added 12th Schedule to the Constitution.It consists of 18 functional items of municipalities & deals with Art 243-W.
The act gave constitutional status to the municipalities.It has brought under them under the purview of justiciable part of the constitution.
The act aims at revitalising & strenghening the urban government so they function effectively as units of local government.
SAILENT FEATURES :
Three types of Municipalities : a) Nagar Panchayath b) Municipal Council for smaller urban area. c) Municipal Corporation for larger urban areas.
Municipal Council : Like Corporations they are also set up in the states by the acts of the concerned state legislatures & in the union territory by the acts of the parliament of India. these are also known by various names as Municipal Council, Municipal Committee, Municipal board, Borough Municipality, City Municipality etc.,
Municipal Corporation : these are created for the administration of big cities Like delhi, mumbai, kolkota, hyderabad, bangalore . A municipal corporation has 3 authorities : a) council b) Standing committee c) commissioner.
Corporation counicl consists of the councillors directly elected by the people, as well as a few nominated persons having knowledge / experience of municipal admin.these also include the reservation of obc's sc & sct's & women is governed by the 74th Constitutional Act.
Corporation Counil is headed by Mayor. he is assisted by Dy.Mayor. he is elected in majority of the states for a one-year renewable term. his main function is to preside over the meetings of the council which is the deliberative & legislative wing of the corporation.
Standing Committees deal with work public works, education, health, taxation, finance.
Municipal commissioner is ersponsible for the decision taken by the council & its standing committees. he is chief executive authority of the corporation.